The Rottweiler /ˈrɒtwaɪlər/ is a large size breed of domestic dog. The dogs were known as 'Rottweil butchers' dogs' (German: Rottweiler Metzgerhund) because they were used to herd livestock and pull carts laden with butchered meat and other products to market.
The Rottweiler was employed in its traditional roles until the mid-19th century when railways replaced droving for herding livestock to market. While still used in herding, Rottweilers are now also used as search and rescue dogs, as guide dogs for the blind, as guard dogs or police dogs, and in other roles.
'Rottweiler breeders aim at a dog of abundant strength, black coated with clearly defined rich tan markings, whose powerful appearance does not lack nobility and which is exceptionally well suited to being a companion, service and working dog.' This breed is all about balance, endurance, proportionality, intelligence and strength. The standards in place for the Rottweiler's physical appearance by the American Kennel Club mimic these characteristics.
The skull is of medium length, broad between the ears. The forehead line is moderately arched as seen from the side, with the occipital bone well developed without being conspicuous. The stop is well defined.
The Rottweiler nose is well developed, more broad than round, with relatively large nostrils and always black. The muzzle should appear neither elongated nor shortened in relation to the cranial region. The nasal bridge is broad at the base and moderately tapered.
The lips are black and close fitting with the corner of the mouth not visible. The gums should be as dark as possible.
Both the upper and lower jaws are strong and broad. According to the FCI Standard Rottweilers should have strong and complete dentition (42 teeth) with scissor bite, the upper incisors closely overlapping the lower incisors.
The zygomatic arches should be pronounced. The eyes should be of medium size, almond-shaped and dark brown in colour. The eyelids are close fitting.
The ears are medium-sized, pendant, triangular, wide apart, and set high on the head. With the ears laid forward close to the head, the skull appears to be broadened.
The skin on the head is tight fitting overall. When the dog is alert, the forehead may be slightly wrinkled.
The neck is strong, of fair length, well muscled, slightly arched, clean, free from throatiness.
Rottweiler breed competition at the Reliant Arena American Kennel Club World Series Dog Show July 23, 2006.
The back is straight, strong and firm. The loins are short, strong and deep. The croup is broad, of medium length, and slightly rounded, neither flat nor falling away. The chest is roomy, broad and deep (approximately 50% of the shoulder height) with a well-developed forechest and well sprung ribs. The flanks are not tucked up.
The tail was traditionally docked at the first or second joint or Natural Bob Tail ('stumpy'). However docking is now banned in many countries and this is reflected in the FCI Standard. It remains legal in others, notably the USA and New Zealand and this is reflected in the AKC and NZKC Standards.
When seen from the front, the front legs are straight and not placed close to each other. The forearm, seen from the side, stands straight and vertical. The slope of the shoulder blade is about 45 degrees. The shoulders are well laid back. The upper arm is close fitting to the body. The forearm is strongly developed and muscular. Pasterns are slightly springy, strong but not steep. The front feet are round, tight and well arched, the pads hard, nails are short, black and strong.
When seen from behind, the rear legs are straight and not too close together. When standing free, obtuse angles are formed between the dog's upper thigh and the hip bone, the upper thigh and the lower thigh, and the lower thigh and metatarsal. The upper thigh is moderately long, broad and strongly muscled. The lower thigh is long, strongly and broadly muscled, sinewy. The hocks are sturdy, well angulated, not steep. The hind feet are slightly longer than the front feet. Toes are strong, arched, as tight as the front feet.
The traditional gait of a Rottweiler is a trot. This movement comes naturally to the Rottie and should appear as such. While walking, the Rottweiler's legs, both front and hind, should move in a straight forward and backward manner. As with the straight movement of the legs, the path the Rottweiler moves in should also be straight. The Rottweiler's gait is all about balance and effectiveness as the breed is still used as a herder today.
The coat consists of an outer coat and an undercoat. The outer coat is of medium length, coarse, dense and flat. The undercoat should be present on the neck and thighs. The undercoat must not show through the outer coat.
Rottweilers living in hot climates may have acclimatised and may be missing the undercoat.
Rottweiler coats tend to be low maintenance, although they experience heavy shedding before their seasons (females) or seasonally (males). According to American Kennel Club breed standards, a Rottweiler's coat is short and straight. A coat that is long or wavy is considered a flaw to the AKC.
The color and markings of a Rottweiler are very distinctive. A Rottweiler is always, by any breed club standards, black with well-defined mahogany or rust-colored markings that do not take up more than ten percent of the dog's body color. All Rottweilers standard to AKC specifications have one mahogany dot above each eye on the inner brow ridge, on the cheeks, one strip on each side of the snout; cheek markings do not cross over the bridge of the nose, the top of the nose should remain black. The markings on the face should move down onto the dog's throat. On the chest, a Rottweiler will have two downward-facing triangular marks. One each front leg the marks will stretch from the forearm to the toes. On the hind legs, the markings will begin on the inside and move outward onto the stifle, then out onto the hock stretching to the toes as well. AKC standards recognize that the black base color is not completely voided on the rear pasterns. There is a patch of rust or mahogany underneath the tail that resembles a triangle as well. A thin strip of black should be present on each of the Rottweiler's toes.
Technically a 'medium / large' breed, according to the FCI standard the Rottweiler stands 61 to 69 cm (24'-27') at the withers for males, 56 to 63 cm (22'-25') for females, and the weight must be between 50 to 60 kg (110–132 lbs) for males and between 35–48 kg (77–105 lbs) for females. Weight must be relative to height.
Source of information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rottweiler
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